Federal government dating policy on education in nigeria national

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    —bishop ayo oritsejafor, president christian association of nigeria, july, 2011 the statements above demonstrate the divergent perspectives on secularism by the two dominant religious communities in nigeria. ultimately, the cultural divergence among the ethnic nationalities, which was reinforced by the colonial policy of governance, bred a culture of sustained conflict and struggle for superiority between religious and state institutions on one hand, and between the various religious groups inter se. as aptly represented by one commentator, state sponsorship of pilgrimage is a tool for political parties and governments in power at all levels to reward their cronies. is a requirement for every child in nigeria to receive a minimum of nine years of free education. demonstrated below, this contradiction is clearly and consistently asserted by nigerian muslims in their quest for an islamic political and legal order.—alh sa’ad abubakar; sultan of sokoto and leader of the islamic community in nigeria, 2011nigeria is a secular nation. this article therefore seeks to situate the legal and constitutional frontiers of state–religion relations in nigeria. the nigerian government characterizes youth as ambitious, enthusiastic, energetic and promising. the most vicious of these movements is the boko haram sect, which killed an estimated 10,000 nigerians between 2002 and 2013, and 1500 in the first three months of 2014 alone, as well as dozens of nigerians and foreigners and has caused untold damage to property, in apparent pursuit of an islamic republic. fifth, a secular government requires freedom of religion and conscience. the legal system does not contain laws based on religion, and the education system is based on logic and science, not religion or dogmas. these schools are funded and managed directly by the federal government through the ministry of education. urban nigerians are increasingly accepting meeting publicly; romantic relationships often lead to marriage. the elders at all the identified levels of government played a prominent role as the holders of authority, though they did not act alone. in the united states, for instance, religious references are copiously imbued in national functions and symbols., section 14 (1) (a) of the constitution of the federal republic of nigeria 1999 (1999 constitution) provides that ‘sovereignty belongs to the people of nigeria from whom government through this constitution derives all its powers and authority. this analysis attempts to isolate what ought to be from what is the actual relationship between religion and the nigerian state., section 14 (1) (a) of the constitution of the federal republic of nigeria 1999 (1999 constitution) provides that ‘sovereignty belongs to the people of nigeria from whom government through this constitution derives all its powers and authority. the jamma’atu nasril islam (jni) (society for the victory of islam) for example, argued that ‘secularism is a system of social teachings or organisation which allows no part of religion’, while sheik abubakar gummi, the late pillar of islamic activism in nigeria, said ‘a secular state is an atheistic state. at all levels, government was largely republican and democratic, as all adult males, or in exceptional situations some females, took active part in the decision-making process. fifth, a secular government requires freedom of religion and conscience. one can therefore assert that nigeria falls short of the characteristic of secularity which requires laws devoid of religious bias., there are laws establishing religious institutions which are wholly funded by government.[1] a national youth development policy was created and designed to advocate for youth and youth development. the persistent struggle by islamists in northern nigeria to establish sharia law and governance has been a consistent source of conflict; hence radical and violent groups often take advantage of the predominant deference to sharia law and governance among northern muslims to orchestrate their clandestine motives. education in nigeria, unesco-unevoc(2012) – overview of the nigerian technical and vocational education system. the most vicious of these movements is the boko haram sect, which killed an estimated 10,000 nigerians between 2002 and 2013, and 1500 in the first three months of 2014 alone, as well as dozens of nigerians and foreigners and has caused untold damage to property, in apparent pursuit of an islamic republic.
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Federal government dating policy on education in nigeria national

the independence constitution made nigeria a regional parliamentary democracy, with a ceremonial president and a prime minister who was the head of government. does the nigerian constitution guarantee freedom of religion and conscience? this premise, national security is defined to reflect the ability of a state to protect its citizens from these multiple threats. of utmost concern to critics of sardauna’s islamization campaign was the use of state funds for the support of islam, by way of building mosques and schools, granting educational scholarships, and dispensing patronage to new converts, among others. thus the term ‘hausa’ is now normally used to refer to the original habe population, the sedentary fulbe-speaking people, the tuareg or kanuri of the old kanem borno empire, and most other tribes of northern nigeria who have adopted the hausa language and culture as well as islam. this contradiction has remained the most challenging part of nigeria’s political existence. the elders at all the identified levels of government played a prominent role as the holders of authority, though they did not act alone. it is doubtful, however, whether nigeria’s educational system is secular, as both the law and practice concerning education are unclear on issues of secularism in religious instructions. blurred relationship between religion and the nigerian state has negatively impacted national security since nigeria's independence in 1960.. pre-colonial religious influences on governance among the ethnic nationalities in nigeria. is the nigerian state neutral and fair in its dealings with all religions? the christian pilgrims commission establishment act has similar provisions and functions with its muslim counterpart—except for that fact that it addresses the christian faith—and also obtains its funding from the federal government.[5] youth who had previous education and testing of hiv/aids had higher rates of std contraction in contrast to those who had no awareness of hiv/aids.’66 on the other hand, northern muslims have consistently maintained a hostile view of secularism since independence, describing the concept as atheism or irreligion, a perception consistently expressed whenever reference is made to nigeria as a secular state. this article therefore seeks to situate the legal and constitutional frontiers of state–religion relations in nigeria. youth policy prioritizes the difficulties women have faced throughout history. accordingly, any act that has the potential to trigger instability and conflict, thereby undermining the development of nigeria and weakening its co-operate existence, negates its national security objectives. situate nigeria’s locus on the secular–non-secular spectrum, the relevant provisions of the constitution and other applicable laws are examined in contrast with the attributes of secularism. accordingly, the transition from an anglo-fulani colonial northern government to a modern democratic nigeria based on egalitarianism came to the northern oligarchy as a rude shock. and socially, the traditional igbo society had no centralized form of government,17 except in kingdoms such as those of the nri, arochukwu, agbor, and onitsha. this scenario necessitates an enquiry into the real nature and character of the nigerian state in terms of its relationship with religion. in the same vein, the nigeria christian pilgrims commission is established by an act of the national assembly. federal republic of nigeria is made up of thirty-six states and the federal capital territory. the government's dominant role with funding provides funds from the universal basic education commission (ubec), and education trust fund (etf). on the one hand, the nigerian christian community, particularly its leadership, has consistently held the view that the divine state has universally given way to the secular state, where the temporal (secular) ruler enjoys full autonomy as ruler with no control from religious or spiritual authorities. by using this site, you agree to the terms of use and privacy policy. president goodluck jonathan has himself suggested that the government may stop the sponsorship of pilgrimage in the near future. Who is lo from the hills dating now,

Federal government dating policy on education

one can argue, therefore, that whereas religious pluralism is guaranteed in the constitution, the religious neutrality requisite for characterizing a state as secular is obviously lacking in nigeria. this analysis attempts to isolate what ought to be from what is the actual relationship between religion and the nigerian state. conflict between islamic and secular law in northern nigeria was in place before independence. it is this monolithic philosophy of islam that has sustained the persistent agitation by nigerian muslims especially those from the north, for sharia. fourth, a secular regime requires the education and the legal systems to be secular.[6] the national youth policy has implemented a variety of focuses in hopes to improve overall quality of education. these universities have continued to play their roles for the production of qualified personnel and the provision of standards, which have helped to guide the subsequent establishments of other generations of universities in nigeria. whereas opposition against state sponsorship of pilgrimage has endured, none of its critics has so far approached the courts for judicial determination of its constitutionality or legality; hence the practice has continued in spite of the president’s indication that government may soon stop the sponsorship of pilgrims. conflict between islamic and secular law in northern nigeria was in place before independence. and the nigerian state: situating the de facto and de jure frontiers of state–religion relations and its implications for national security. for northern nigerians, therefore, attainment of political power as well as advancement in the public service and the military were intricately tied to islam and association with the faith. demonstrated below, this contradiction is clearly and consistently asserted by nigerian muslims in their quest for an islamic political and legal order. a clear understanding of the nature and character of state–religion relations among the hausa-fulani ethnic nationality, a cursory consideration of its transformation is useful.’89 in this view, nigeria is not a secular state, to the extent that it is concerned with both ‘temporal’ and ‘religious’ matters. 2009 national youth policy recognizes 5 priority areas that need to be addressed to enhance youth lives. however, for a proper understanding of these implications, the explication of the concept of ‘national security’ in the nigerian context is imperative. view of the current political reality, it would be extremely difficult to eliminate government sponsorship of pilgrimage. federal government established a law in 1993, allowing private sectors to establish universities following guidelines prescribed by the government. universal basic education, ube, came as a replacement of the universal primary education and an innovation to enhance the success of the first nine years of schooling the ube involves 6 years of primary school education and 3 years of junior secondary school education, culminating in 9 years of uninterrupted schooling, and transition from one class to another is automatic but determined through continuous assessment. the activities of these islamic puritans have almost rendered the government impotent, as both nigerians and foreigners no longer have confidence in the state’s ability to provide security. candidates with minimum of merit pass in national certificate of education (nce), national diploma (nd) and other advanced level certificates minimum qualifications with minimum of 5 o/l credits are given direct entry admission into the appropriate undergraduate degree programs. on the one hand, the nigerian christian community, particularly its leadership, has consistently held the view that the divine state has universally given way to the secular state, where the temporal (secular) ruler enjoys full autonomy as ruler with no control from religious or spiritual authorities. excessive mortality from hiv/aids results in low life expectancy in nigeria. ultimately, the cultural divergence among the ethnic nationalities, which was reinforced by the colonial policy of governance, bred a culture of sustained conflict and struggle for superiority between religious and state institutions on one hand, and between the various religious groups inter se. nonetheless, all post-independence regimes in nigeria have striven to enforce the country’s secular character in the face of serious constraints from northern islamists who have persistently wished for an islamic state. hard secularism in its contemporary form is associated with the french laïcité, which denotes the strict absence of religious involvement in government affairs as well as absence of government involvement in religious affairs. this paradox has remained the achilles' heel of nigeria’s corporate existence, as northern islamists have consistently sought the establishment of an islamic state to replace the extant secular regime. 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, there are laws establishing religious institutions which are wholly funded by government. it is common in urban areas for inter-ethnic dating to occur, though inter-religious dating does not occur. the soft (moderate) variant of secularism practised in most liberal democracies attempts to separate government affairs from religious dogmas while divesting religious leaders of authority over political decisions. finally, a secular regime is based on pluralism, which requires the government’s respect for all religions and religious beliefs. by virtue of this regional configuration, the allegiance and loyalty of politicians and public servants were to their respective regional governments and premiers as opposed to the federal (central) government. ‘hausa’ was a term originally used to describe the hausa-speaking peoples of northern nigeria (consisting of the habe and maguzawa). the education system is divided into kindergarten, primary education, secondary education and tertiary education. a nigerian child may be breastfed until the age of 2. this administrative contrast reinforced the pre-existing incompatibility in state–religion relations among the ethnic nationalities that were now integrated as one nation state. british colonialism came to its twilight, it was recognized that ‘a functioning nigerian state – one that incorporated both the muslim north and the christian and animist south – would have to be of a secular character’. one can argue, therefore, that whereas religious pluralism is guaranteed in the constitution, the religious neutrality requisite for characterizing a state as secular is obviously lacking in nigeria. also, the incongruous system of colonial administration in the different regions allowed the islamic caliphatorial system of governance in northern nigeria to continue uninterrupted, while imposing a western secular system in the southern part of the country. under the new political dispensation, the sardauna of sokoto, alhaji ahmadu bello, a caliphatorial prince, became the premier of the northern region, the de jure political leader of northern nigeria, while the sultan of sokoto remained the de facto leader of the muslim community in the north. in the end, the military government decided to give states the liberty to establish ‘state sharia courts of appeal’ as opposed to a ‘federal sharia court of appeal’ which was sought by the muslim north. national examination council is another examination body in nigeria; it administers the senior secondary school examination (ssce) in june/july. section 38 (2) of the 1999 constitution provides that ‘[n]o person attending any place of education shall be required to receive religious instruction or to take part in or attend any religious ceremony or observance if such instruction ceremony or observance relates to a religion other than his own, or religion not approved by his parent or guardian. however, for a proper understanding of these implications, the explication of the concept of ‘national security’ in the nigerian context is imperative. the analytical depiction of state adherence to secular ideals made above, it would be difficult to answer the question in the affirmative; yet to say nigeria is not secular also would be a fundamentally flawed conclusion.-owned secondary schools are funded by each state government and are not comparable to the federal government colleges. based on the british fiction that northern nigeria was mainly islamic, the colonial government’s system of ‘indirect rule’ relied heavily on the hausa-fulani political cum religious establishment to maintain control of northern nigeria. pre-colonial religious influences on governance among the ethnic nationalities in nigeria. the activities of these islamic puritans have almost rendered the government impotent, as both nigerians and foreigners no longer have confidence in the state’s ability to provide security. the bone of contention was the proposed establishment of a federal sharia court of appeal by the muslims, a move that was fervidly resisted by non-muslim delegates who saw it as creating a parallel judicial system for nigeria, against the spirit of secularism bequeathed to the country by the british. second, religion is separate from the state in a secular government. they were established primarily to meet a need for qualified personnel in nigeria and to set basic standards for university education. under the new political dispensation, the sardauna of sokoto, alhaji ahmadu bello, a caliphatorial prince, became the premier of the northern region, the de jure political leader of northern nigeria, while the sultan of sokoto remained the de facto leader of the muslim community in the north.’66 on the other hand, northern muslims have consistently maintained a hostile view of secularism since independence, describing the concept as atheism or irreligion, a perception consistently expressed whenever reference is made to nigeria as a secular state.

Nigeria's National Policy on Education and the University

in nigeria includes citizens of the federal republic of nigeria aged 18–35 years. although some commentators have argued that nigeria is a multi-religious state as opposed to a secular one,87 secularism and multi-religiosity are not necessarily antonymous,88 nor is religiosity antithetical to secularism. pre-colonial religious influences on governance among the ethnic nationalities in nigeria. national security can therefore be defined as freedom from danger or absence of threats to the multidimensional elements that may affect the nation’s ability to protect and develop itself, promote its cherished values and national interests, and promote and increase the wellbeing of its peoples. this is the general illogic that pervades islamic literature on secularism in nigeria. the independence constitution made nigeria a regional parliamentary democracy, with a ceremonial president and a prime minister who was the head of government. practice, the nigerian federal and states’ ministries of education have all provided similar non-faith-based guidelines for the establishment of primary and secondary schools. it furthers the university's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. core subjects are: english; mathematics; economics; one major nigerian language; one elective out of biology, chemistry, physics or integrated science; one elective out of english literature, history, geography or social studies; agricultural science or a vocational subject which includes: commerce, food and nutrition, technical drawing or fine arts. based on the british fiction that northern nigeria was mainly islamic, the colonial government’s system of ‘indirect rule’ relied heavily on the hausa-fulani political cum religious establishment to maintain control of northern nigeria. and the nigerian state: situating the de facto and de jure frontiers of state–religion relations and its implications for national security.’ the implication of these provisions is that, whereas all religious groups or communities have the legal right to wholly own educational institutions and provide religious instructions to pupils/students of that community based on their faith, any pupil/student of the community or another who professes a religion other than the one recognized and provided by that institution, shall not be compelled to take the said religious instructions provided by the institution. in terms of the sources of nigerian law, the common law of england, the doctrines of equity, and the statutes of general application, applicable to nigeria before 1900, were to be administered in the courts in so far as local circumstances permitted. the policy seeks to protect their rights and promote female youths' interests and goals. the mayhem unleashed by this sect has made nigeria an unsafe destination for business and leisure, and in november 2013 the united states categorized the sect as a terrorist organization—a move that could further threaten nigeria’s interests. teachers in state-owned institutions usually have a national certificate of education or a bachelor's degree, but this is not always the case as many secondary schools in nigeria are filled with unqualified teachers who end up not being able to motivate their students. does the nigerian constitution guarantee freedom of religion and conscience? the muslim national hajj commission of nigeria is established by law and funded from the federation account. preceding analysis provides an informed platform for assessing nigeria’s neutrality and religious pluralism in its official dealings. consequently, nigerians being a multi-religious people would not have conceded to the state the right to govern them on the basis of a particular religious creed. nonetheless, all post-independence regimes in nigeria have striven to enforce the country’s secular character in the face of serious constraints from northern islamists who have persistently wished for an islamic state. "why governments should invest more to educate girls" world development, vol. similarly, the secretary and staff of the commission are remunerated by the federal government and also enjoy all privileges available to public servants. this situation ultimately threatens the viability of the nigerian state as calls for secession or disintegration have bourgeoned amidst the boko haram challenge. this motivation led him into an ambitious islamization campaign in the region and beyond, he allied with the arab islamic world in the process, attracting praise from that region as a champion of islam and drawing millions of dollars from there in support of the faith in nigeria. also, the incongruous system of colonial administration in the different regions allowed the islamic caliphatorial system of governance in northern nigeria to continue uninterrupted, while imposing a western secular system in the southern part of the country. ultimately, therefore, the entire gamut of nigeria’s professed security interests identified above has been compromised by religious extremism and violence, which is induced by the blurred relationship between religion and the state.

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it is doubtful, however, whether nigeria’s educational system is secular, as both the law and practice concerning education are unclear on issues of secularism in religious instructions. the introduction of the 6-3-3-4 system of education in nigeria, the recipient of the education would spend six years in primary school, three years in junior secondary school, three years in senior secondary school, and four years in tertiary institution. by virtue of this regional configuration, the allegiance and loyalty of politicians and public servants were to their respective regional governments and premiers as opposed to the federal (central) government. its independence in 1960, nigeria has struggled unsuccessfully to clearly articulate the relationship between religion and the state. this scenario necessitates an enquiry into the real nature and character of the nigerian state in terms of its relationship with religion. whereas the traditional institutions of governance of some ethnic nationalities were an amalgam of political and religious authority, religion and its institutions were independent of political authority in some communities. state–religion relations in nigeria are characterized by ill-defined boundaries. in spite of the apparent dominance of islam and christianity in public relations, the syncretic nature of religion among nigerian tribes has paradoxically made tr a sort of melting pot, as those who profess both islamic and christian faiths frequently patronize traditional religious priests for spiritual rituals. as one commentator has observed concerning nigeria’s respect for religious inclusiveness ‘muslim and christian holidays are observed. this situation ultimately threatens the viability of the nigerian state as calls for secession or disintegration have bourgeoned amidst the boko haram challenge. in spite of the apparent dominance of islam and christianity in public relations, the syncretic nature of religion among nigerian tribes has paradoxically made tr a sort of melting pot, as those who profess both islamic and christian faiths frequently patronize traditional religious priests for spiritual rituals. as aptly represented by one commentator, state sponsorship of pilgrimage is a tool for political parties and governments in power at all levels to reward their cronies. ultimately, therefore, the entire gamut of nigeria’s professed security interests identified above has been compromised by religious extremism and violence, which is induced by the blurred relationship between religion and the state.’ nigeria can therefore be referred to as a multi-religious state where freedom of worship and conscience is constitutionally guaranteed.: nigerian societynigerian peopleyouth in nigeriahidden categories: cs1 errors: external linkspages using web citations with no urlpages with citations lacking titles. in the same vein, the nigeria christian pilgrims commission is established by an act of the national assembly. in order to increase the number of universities in nigeria from 129 to 138 the federal government gave 9 new private universities their licences in may 2015. universities in this tier include the university of nigeria, nsukka and the university of ibadan. policy developed leadership roles and life training skills which seek to keep youth focused on education, politics and overall youth agency. the federal republic of nigeria believes that persons with disabilities have rights that should be protected by the government. from qualified students from each state who could not readily get admissions to any of the federal universities continued to mount on states governments. are nigerian legal and educational systems independent of religious dogmas? young people have engaged in attacks against oil firms and nigerian militants, hostage taking and hijacking oil workers, youth militancy, vandalizing oil pipelines, and detonating bombs.-colonial state–religion relations among the disparate ethnic nationalities that now form the geographical entity called nigeria took various forms. it is intent on delineating the conceptual boundary between religion and politics, while evaluating the impact of the current relationship on national security. situate nigeria’s locus on the secular–non-secular spectrum, the relevant provisions of the constitution and other applicable laws are examined in contrast with the attributes of secularism. rates among youth vary according to gender, region, education, marital status, and other factors. Comparison between online and traditional dating

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this situation had negative implications for the development of common national consciousness as it reinforced regional differences, including religious diversity. are nigerian legal and educational systems independent of religious dogmas? the mayhem unleashed by this sect has made nigeria an unsafe destination for business and leisure, and in november 2013 the united states categorized the sect as a terrorist organization—a move that could further threaten nigeria’s interests. the millennium development goals, the african youth charter, and other international agreements further guide the policy goals found in the document. on the one hand, such safeguards ensure the right to be free from religious rule and teachings, the right to freedom from governmental imposition of religion upon the people in a multi-religious state and secure insulation of human activities and political decisions/actions from biased religious influences. year entry requirements into most universities in nigeria include: minimum of ssce/gce ordinary level credits at maximum of two sittings; minimum cut-off marks in joint admission and matriculation board entrance examination (jamb) of 180 and above out of a maximum of 400 marks are required. as demonstrated in the analysis of the various pre-colonial nationalities in section 2 above, religion was in that time a source of political legitimacy. whereas opposition against state sponsorship of pilgrimage has endured, none of its critics has so far approached the courts for judicial determination of its constitutionality or legality; hence the practice has continued in spite of the president’s indication that government may soon stop the sponsorship of pilgrims. terwase sampson; religion and the nigerian state: situating the de facto and de jure frontiers of state–religion relations and its implications for national security.% of infected youth, in contrast to higher levels of education whose rates were 4. in spite of religious influences on nigeria's laws, government patronage of the two dominant religions, the trifurcation of the legal system and other imperfections identified above, the essential aim of the nigerian state, as depicted by the constitution, is to conduct government business in a manner that is devoid of religious dictates. the soft (moderate) variant of secularism practised in most liberal democracies attempts to separate government affairs from religious dogmas while divesting religious leaders of authority over political decisions. all of which urges the question: is nigeria a secular state? and socially, the traditional igbo society had no centralized form of government,17 except in kingdoms such as those of the nri, arochukwu, agbor, and onitsha. local authorities take responsibility for implementing policy for state-controlled public education and state schools at a regional level.[2] nigeria is the most populous country in africa with one of the largest populations of youth in the world, comprising 33,652,424 members. as one commentator has observed concerning nigeria’s respect for religious inclusiveness ‘muslim and christian holidays are observed., legislative activity in the national assembly and its outcomes demonstrate a strong deference to religious bias. president goodluck jonathan has himself suggested that the government may stop the sponsorship of pilgrimage in the near future. the system recognizes the english law—composed of the common law of england, the doctrines of equity, and the statutes of general application in force before the 1st day of january 1900– in addition to the customary laws of the constituent ethnic nationalities74 and islamic law75 as the sources of nigerian law. british colonialism came to its twilight, it was recognized that ‘a functioning nigerian state – one that incorporated both the muslim north and the christian and animist south – would have to be of a secular character’. youth in nigeria is prioritized with the goal of reducing poverty, inequality, and overall increasing economic growth. the policy views youth welfare as vital to the nigerian nation and its socioeconomic development. does the nigerian state adhere to the principle of religious pluralism (respect for all religions)? on the basis of these characteristics, therefore, the following queries are appropriate: where does sovereignty reside in nigeria—in the state or in a divine body? does the nigerian state adhere to the principle of religious pluralism (respect for all religions)? we shall see later, the colonial intention was to bequeath to nigeria a moderate secular state; yet the historical religious sectarianism, occasioned by intense politicization of religion, has deeply implicated the state in religious patronage, thereby creating a contradiction as to the true character of state–religion relation.

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view of the current political reality, it would be extremely difficult to eliminate government sponsorship of pilgrimage. the northern region particularly championed a policy of regionalism, which was essentially aimed at weakening the centre and strengthening the regions, the objective of which was to promote peculiar regional tendencies, particularly adherence to islamic law. thus three sources of law were applicable in nigeria courts—english law, customary law, and sharia law—although sharia law was considered by the british as part of customary law. thus the british bequeathed to a unified nigeria a seemingly secular system of government, albeit with deeply segmented religious cleavages, reflected in its institutional configuration. this motivation led him into an ambitious islamization campaign in the region and beyond, he allied with the arab islamic world in the process, attracting praise from that region as a champion of islam and drawing millions of dollars from there in support of the faith in nigeria.’ nigeria can therefore be referred to as a multi-religious state where freedom of worship and conscience is constitutionally guaranteed. to that extent, nigeria may be classified as a moderately secular or soft secular state, since there is a clear constitutional intent to separate official from religious affairs. this scheme is monitored by the universal basic education commission, ubec, and has made it "free", "compulsory" and a right of every child. the current view on national security envisions protection or safety from a wide variety of existential threats such as hunger, violation of human rights, crime and criminality, political instability and conflict, poverty, and environmental degradation. thus, in spite of the apparent scorn of tr by nigerian elites as a result of the modernizing influences of the colonizing religions, tr continues to be furtively patronized by a great many adherents of both islam and christianity and has therefore maintained its relevance. saying nigeria is a secular nation does not understand the meaning of the word secular. indeed, the ambiguous character of states in respect of their suitability to secularity is universal; nigeria is not an exception. of january 2015, the international schools consultancy (isc)[5] listed nigeria as having 129 international schools.’73third, the sources of law under the nigeria legal system are three-pronged. the presidential state house has a church and mosque in it, while states’ government houses have either churches or mosques, depending on the religious predominance of a religion in the state. accordingly, any act that has the potential to trigger instability and conflict, thereby undermining the development of nigeria and weakening its co-operate existence, negates its national security objectives. in spite of its inconclusive nature, the sharia debate was significant in two material respects: one, it reinforced the politicization of religion, as both sides of the divide adopted pseudo-religious populism to impress their followers; two, it either introduced or reinforced religious acrimony in politics; a development that has remained a significant indicator of political alignments and policy configuration. by empowering females, restoring their dignity, establishing programs to end gender-based discrimination and promoting the rights, nigerian youth policy places emphasis on the needs of young women.[2] some state-owned secondary schools are regarded as elite colleges because of the historically high educational standard and producing alumni who have prominent citizens in the various careers. this administrative contrast reinforced the pre-existing incompatibility in state–religion relations among the ethnic nationalities that were now integrated as one nation state. is the nigerian state neutral and fair in its dealings with all religions? federal government of nigeria national youth policy attempts to mitigate prevalence by providing care, treatment and support for infected young people. this policy is seen as a youth participation project, versus a project identifying problems and needs. politicians want power to rotate between christians and muslims as if every nigerian must be either a muslim or a christian. it is this monolithic philosophy of islam that has sustained the persistent agitation by nigerian muslims especially those from the north, for sharia. we shall see later, the colonial intention was to bequeath to nigeria a moderate secular state; yet the historical religious sectarianism, occasioned by intense politicization of religion, has deeply implicated the state in religious patronage, thereby creating a contradiction as to the true character of state–religion relation. this situation had negative implications for the development of common national consciousness as it reinforced regional differences, including religious diversity.

UNESCO IBE - World Data on Education, 6th edition - Nigeria

it is in this sense that that the ‘nigerian defence policy’ identifies nigeria’s national security interests as including strengthening the federal republic of nigeria, advancing her interest and objectives, containing instability, controlling crime, eliminating corruption, enhancing development, progress and growth, and improving the quality of life of every citizen. the jamma’atu nasril islam (jni) (society for the victory of islam) for example, argued that ‘secularism is a system of social teachings or organisation which allows no part of religion’, while sheik abubakar gummi, the late pillar of islamic activism in nigeria, said ‘a secular state is an atheistic state. thus the british bequeathed to a unified nigeria a seemingly secular system of government, albeit with deeply segmented religious cleavages, reflected in its institutional configuration. the increasing population of qualified students for university education in nigeria and the growing needs for scientific and technological developments, setting up more universities became imperative. the english law, therefore, runs concurrently with customary and islamic laws, and there is a strong religious influence on the nigerian legal system generally. for northern nigerians, therefore, attainment of political power as well as advancement in the public service and the military were intricately tied to islam and association with the faith. the persistent struggle by islamists in northern nigeria to establish sharia law and governance has been a consistent source of conflict; hence radical and violent groups often take advantage of the predominant deference to sharia law and governance among northern muslims to orchestrate their clandestine motives. education begins at the age of 4 for the majority of nigerians. practice, the nigerian federal and states’ ministries of education have all provided similar non-faith-based guidelines for the establishment of primary and secondary schools. although some commentators have argued that nigeria is a multi-religious state as opposed to a secular one,87 secularism and multi-religiosity are not necessarily antonymous,88 nor is religiosity antithetical to secularism. ‘hausa’ was a term originally used to describe the hausa-speaking peoples of northern nigeria (consisting of the habe and maguzawa). tuition and fees are very low, approximately twenty five thousand naira (0), because funding comes from the federal government. nigerians live in extended large families with separate living quarters. articlespublishauthor guidelinessubmitorder offprintsopen access optionspurchasealertsaboutabout oxford journal of law and religioneditorial boardadvertising and corporate servicesself-archiving policydispatch dates. in the united states, for instance, religious references are copiously imbued in national functions and symbols. recently, the stephen oronsaye committee on cessation of sponsorship of pilgrimages recommended that the federal government should stop sponsorship of both christian and muslim pilgrimages, to jerusalem, israel, mecca, and saudi arabia.[6] isc defines an 'international school' in the following terms "isc includes an international school if the school delivers a curriculum to any combination of pre-school, primary or secondary students, wholly or partly in english outside an english-speaking country, or if a school in a country where english is one of the official languages, offers an english-medium curriculum other than the country’s national curriculum and is international in its orientation. politicians want power to rotate between christians and muslims as if every nigerian must be either a muslim or a christian. determining whether nigeria is a secular or spiritual state, it is useful to unbundle the concept of secularity/secularism. although nigeria’s prohibition of a state religion, its constitutional guarantee of freedom of religion and conscience, as well as the prohibition of discrimination on the ground of religion by the constitution are not sufficient to warrant its characterization as a hard secular state, yet the deficits identified above also do not warrant a description of the country as non-secular. for health training to support girls and women to train as health workers in northern nigeria by 2016, providing support to meet entry standards. islam is a social order, philosophy of life, a system of economic rules and government.-colonial state–religion relations among the disparate ethnic nationalities that now form the geographical entity called nigeria took various forms. on the one hand, such safeguards ensure the right to be free from religious rule and teachings, the right to freedom from governmental imposition of religion upon the people in a multi-religious state and secure insulation of human activities and political decisions/actions from biased religious influences. admission is based on merit, determined by the national common entrance examination taken by all final year elementary school pupils. national security can therefore be defined as freedom from danger or absence of threats to the multidimensional elements that may affect the nation’s ability to protect and develop itself, promote its cherished values and national interests, and promote and increase the wellbeing of its peoples. unfortunately, the common, though fallacious, presumption in nigeria is that putting children in religious schools where opposing religious instructions are given is voluntary; hence parents who willingly do so are deemed to have volunteered to expose their children or wards to such religious instructions.

Nigeria's Universal Basic Education (U.B.E.) Policy: A Sociological

determining whether nigeria is a secular or spiritual state, it is useful to unbundle the concept of secularity/secularism., legislative activity in the national assembly and its outcomes demonstrate a strong deference to religious bias.^ nussbaum, martha (2003) "women's education: a global challenge" sign:: journal of women in culture and society 2003, vol. religion does not affect the government’s affairs, meaning that laws and regulations are not based on religion. this paradox has remained the achilles' heel of nigeria’s corporate existence, as northern islamists have consistently sought the establishment of an islamic state to replace the extant secular regime. these schools are supposed to be model schools carrying and maintaining the ideals of secondary education for nigerian students. at all levels, government was largely republican and democratic, as all adult males, or in exceptional situations some females, took active part in the decision-making process.’37 thus independence for nigeria came with a serious burden of defining the relationship between religion and politics, as the northern muslims continued their search for an islamic identity through the realization of a full islamic state. teachers at the federal government schools are required to possess a bachelor's degree in education or in a particular subject area, such as, mathematics, physics etc. it is in this sense that that the ‘nigerian defence policy’ identifies nigeria’s national security interests as including strengthening the federal republic of nigeria, advancing her interest and objectives, containing instability, controlling crime, eliminating corruption, enhancing development, progress and growth, and improving the quality of life of every citizen. in terms of the sources of nigerian law, the common law of england, the doctrines of equity, and the statutes of general application, applicable to nigeria before 1900, were to be administered in the courts in so far as local circumstances permitted. by sections 3 and 9 of the act, members of the commission are appointed by the president and remunerated by the federal government. this premise, national security is defined to reflect the ability of a state to protect its citizens from these multiple threats. the current view on national security envisions protection or safety from a wide variety of existential threats such as hunger, violation of human rights, crime and criminality, political instability and conflict, poverty, and environmental degradation. similarly, the secretary and staff of the commission are remunerated by the federal government and also enjoy all privileges available to public servants. thus the existence of multiple judicial systems based on secular, religious, and traditional jurisprudence, as well as multiple educational systems based on secular and religious principles, only serve the purpose of obfuscating the real character of the nigerian state, whether secular or religious. there are about two federal government colleges in each state., therefore, it is safe to assert that nigeria is a moderately secular or soft secular state, as there is ample constitutional evidence of an unambiguous intention to separate state affairs from religious creeds. although religion and politics were dominant features of life in the traditional settings of the different ethnic nationalities,2 there were some communities where religion and politics were autonomous. it became imperative and urgent for some state governments to invest in the establishment of universities. a clear understanding of the nature and character of state–religion relations among the hausa-fulani ethnic nationality, a cursory consideration of its transformation is useful.’46realizing that the division between political and religious authority was cast by modern politics, sardauna, the political leader of northern nigeria, sought to establish himself as the religious leader of the region in order to consolidate his legitimacy. its independence in 1960, nigeria has struggled unsuccessfully to clearly articulate the relationship between religion and the state. this is the general illogic that pervades islamic literature on secularism in nigeria. in addition, by virtue of the introduction of islamic law in some northern states of nigeria, all girls attending public schools in those states are required to wear the hijab scarf. recently, the stephen oronsaye committee on cessation of sponsorship of pilgrimages recommended that the federal government should stop sponsorship of both christian and muslim pilgrimages, to jerusalem, israel, mecca, and saudi arabia. accordingly, the transition from an anglo-fulani colonial northern government to a modern democratic nigeria based on egalitarianism came to the northern oligarchy as a rude shock.

Education in Nigeria - Wikipedia

National Policy Brief of Nigeria pdf

the boko haram’s campaign of terror in northern nigeria, which is ostensibly founded on an islamization agenda, demonstrates the ramifications of this challenge, as this group's violent activities have stretched the elasticity of national security and unity, thereby calling into question the viability of the nigerian state. one can therefore assert that nigeria falls short of the characteristic of secularity which requires laws devoid of religious bias. in doing so, government promotes prevention activities through risk reduction, abstinence, and condom use. to what extent are nigerian laws insulated from religious dogmas?[1] therefore, the ubec law section 15 defines ube as early childhood care and education.’67 with this divergent view of secularism by the two dominant religious groups, it was only a matter of time before the contradictions inherent in the seemingly secular nigerian state bequeathed by the british colonialists would manifest themselves. "cultural variation in parenting styles in the majority world evidences from nigeria and cameroon".’37 thus independence for nigeria came with a serious burden of defining the relationship between religion and politics, as the northern muslims continued their search for an islamic identity through the realization of a full islamic state. by using this site, you agree to the terms of use and privacy policy. olusegun obasanjo, formerly the president of nigeria from 1999 until 2007, believes that identifying and addressing issues that would enhance the lives of the youth would improve overall national development. fourth, a secular regime requires the education and the legal systems to be secular. islam is a social order, philosophy of life, a system of economic rules and government. in spite of religious influences on nigeria's laws, government patronage of the two dominant religions, the trifurcation of the legal system and other imperfections identified above, the essential aim of the nigerian state, as depicted by the constitution, is to conduct government business in a manner that is devoid of religious dictates. "violence and national development in nigeria: the political economy of youth restiveness in the niger delta".[9] rapid socioeconomic development of a nation has been observed to depend on the calibre of women and their education in that country. data on education: nigeria, unesco-ibe(2010–2011) – overview of the nigerian education system. unfortunately, the common, though fallacious, presumption in nigeria is that putting children in religious schools where opposing religious instructions are given is voluntary; hence parents who willingly do so are deemed to have volunteered to expose their children or wards to such religious instructions. the legal system does not contain laws based on religion, and the education system is based on logic and science, not religion or dogmas. nigerian children adapt to one of three roles: authoritarian, authoritative, or permissive, depending on their culture. this was followed by the establishment of a sharia court of appeal for the northern region on nigeria’s independence day (1 october 1960). the boko haram’s campaign of terror in northern nigeria, which is ostensibly founded on an islamization agenda, demonstrates the ramifications of this challenge, as this group's violent activities have stretched the elasticity of national security and unity, thereby calling into question the viability of the nigerian state., therefore, it is safe to assert that nigeria is a moderately secular or soft secular state, as there is ample constitutional evidence of an unambiguous intention to separate state affairs from religious creeds. this logic rationalizes the provision of section 10 of the 1999 constitution which says: ‘[t]he government of the federation or of a state shall not adopt any religion as state religion’, thus ensuring the absence of a state religion. thus three sources of law were applicable in nigeria courts—english law, customary law, and sharia law—although sharia law was considered by the british as part of customary law. as demonstrated in the analysis of the various pre-colonial nationalities in section 2 above, religion was in that time a source of political legitimacy. eleven million youth unemployment in nigeria were believed to be unemployed in 2012. this was followed by the establishment of a sharia court of appeal for the northern region on nigeria’s independence day (1 october 1960).

National Gender Policy

it furthers the university's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. he has stated that, "youth constitute nigeria's only hope for a real future".[11] tension in the public has caused conflict among minority and majority groups which has crippled national and social development.[1] the 2009 national youth policy is guided by several national and international policy initiatives, including national policies for education, gender, health, population for sustainable development, and the national economic empowerment development strategy (needs). france and turkey, which exemplify strict secularism, are multi-religious nations with many pious people, yet religion is kept out of government and its institutions.^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "nigeria education profile". the body also administers the general certificate of education examination (gce) in december/january. in addition, by virtue of the introduction of islamic law in some northern states of nigeria, all girls attending public schools in those states are required to wear the hijab scarf.’ similarly, subsection 3 says ‘[n]o religious community or denomination shall be prevented from providing religious instruction for pupils of that community or denomination in any place of education maintained wholly by that community or denomination. france and turkey, which exemplify strict secularism, are multi-religious nations with many pious people, yet religion is kept out of government and its institutions. "statistical modeling of social risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases among female youths in nigeria". although religion and politics were dominant features of life in the traditional settings of the different ethnic nationalities,2 there were some communities where religion and politics were autonomous. as mentioned earlier, the american currency bears the slogan ‘in god we trust’; us government officials and supreme court justices take oaths of office while placing their hands on the bible or other holy book; the pledge of allegiance refers to ‘one nation under god’; while some justices of the supreme court attend the ‘red mass’ annually before the first day the court is in session. a positive correlation exists between the enrollment of girls in primary school and the gross national product and life expectancy. this contradiction has remained the most challenging part of nigeria’s political existence. the presidential state house has a church and mosque in it, while states’ government houses have either churches or mosques, depending on the religious predominance of a religion in the state. section 38 (2) of the 1999 constitution provides that ‘[n]o person attending any place of education shall be required to receive religious instruction or to take part in or attend any religious ceremony or observance if such instruction ceremony or observance relates to a religion other than his own, or religion not approved by his parent or guardian. the country has a total number of 129 universities registered by nuc among which federal and state government own 40 and 39 respectively while 50 universities are privately owned. bola ige, a member of the cdc and ca, captured succinctly the controversy that raged at the cdc over the purported secularism or otherwise of the nigerian state: ‘it was suggested that the phrase “nigeria is a secular state” be inserted in the constitution.. pre-colonial religious influences on governance among the ethnic nationalities in nigeria. in the same vein, some nigerian laws are laden with religious substance. to that extent, nigeria may be classified as a moderately secular or soft secular state, since there is a clear constitutional intent to separate official from religious affairs. the sharia question consistently rears its head in the nigerian polity, its costs for the nation are damning.[6] youth in nigeria school system consists of six years of primary education, three years of junior secondary, three years of senior secondary, and four years of tertiary education.—bishop ayo oritsejafor, president christian association of nigeria, july, 2011 the statements above demonstrate the divergent perspectives on secularism by the two dominant religious communities in nigeria.—alh sa’ad abubakar; sultan of sokoto and leader of the islamic community in nigeria, 2011nigeria is a secular nation. indeed, the ambiguous character of states in respect of their suitability to secularity is universal; nigeria is not an exception.

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general certificate of education examination (gce) was replaced by the senior secondary certificate examination (ssce). to british colonial incursion into the disparate territories that are now aggregated as nigeria, the various ethnic nationalities within these territories had their respective systems of social organization and religious beliefs. in nigeria can legally work when they are 15 years old. it is intent on delineating the conceptual boundary between religion and politics, while evaluating the impact of the current relationship on national security. the law stipulates a 9-year formal schooling, adult literacy and non-formal education, skill acquisition programs and the education of special groups such as nomads and migrants, girl child and women, al-majiri, street children and disabled people (aderinoye, 2007). to what extent are nigerian laws insulated from religious dogmas? religion does not affect the government’s affairs, meaning that laws and regulations are not based on religion. there is nothing secular about the nigerian nation since whatever we do will always put islam and christianity in the fore front. to british colonial incursion into the disparate territories that are now aggregated as nigeria, the various ethnic nationalities within these territories had their respective systems of social organization and religious beliefs. by sections 3 and 9 of the act, members of the commission are appointed by the president and remunerated by the federal government. invariably, the nigerian notion of national security denotes ‘the aggregate of the security interests of all individuals, communities, ethnic groups and political entities’. although nigeria’s prohibition of a state religion, its constitutional guarantee of freedom of religion and conscience, as well as the prohibition of discrimination on the ground of religion by the constitution are not sufficient to warrant its characterization as a hard secular state, yet the deficits identified above also do not warrant a description of the country as non-secular. bola ige, a member of the cdc and ca, captured succinctly the controversy that raged at the cdc over the purported secularism or otherwise of the nigerian state: ‘it was suggested that the phrase “nigeria is a secular state” be inserted in the constitution. the system recognizes the english law—composed of the common law of england, the doctrines of equity, and the statutes of general application in force before the 1st day of january 1900– in addition to the customary laws of the constituent ethnic nationalities74 and islamic law75 as the sources of nigerian law. this logic rationalizes the provision of section 10 of the 1999 constitution which says: ‘[t]he government of the federation or of a state shall not adopt any religion as state religion’, thus ensuring the absence of a state religion. the sharia question consistently rears its head in the nigerian polity, its costs for the nation are damning. blurred relationship between religion and the nigerian state has negatively impacted national security since nigeria's independence in 1960. second, religion is separate from the state in a secular government. although education is supposed to be free in the majority of the state owned institutions, students are required to purchase books, uniforms and pay for miscellaneous things costing them an average of fifty thousand naira (0) in an academic year. some of the problems nigerian youth face in education are unbiased access to junior secondary, and senior secondary education for the poor, and the need to adjust the school curriculum to focus on the transition from school to labour economics. of these universities were established between 1948 and 1965, following the recommendation of the ashby commission set up by the british colonial government to study the necessity of university education for nigeria. the northern region particularly championed a policy of regionalism, which was essentially aimed at weakening the centre and strengthening the regions, the objective of which was to promote peculiar regional tendencies, particularly adherence to islamic law. finally, a secular regime is based on pluralism, which requires the government’s respect for all religions and religious beliefs.[4] data on youth employment in nigeria are scarce due to underresourced agencies responsible for their collection.’73third, the sources of law under the nigeria legal system are three-pronged. primary school students are required to take a common entrance examination to qualify for admission into the federal and state government secondary schools, as well as private ones. thus the existence of multiple judicial systems based on secular, religious, and traditional jurisprudence, as well as multiple educational systems based on secular and religious principles, only serve the purpose of obfuscating the real character of the nigerian state, whether secular or religious.

FEDERAL GOVERNMENT OF NIGERIA BY

of utmost concern to critics of sardauna’s islamization campaign was the use of state funds for the support of islam, by way of building mosques and schools, granting educational scholarships, and dispensing patronage to new converts, among others. hard secularism in its contemporary form is associated with the french laïcité, which denotes the strict absence of religious involvement in government affairs as well as absence of government involvement in religious affairs. the bone of contention was the proposed establishment of a federal sharia court of appeal by the muslims, a move that was fervidly resisted by non-muslim delegates who saw it as creating a parallel judicial system for nigeria, against the spirit of secularism bequeathed to the country by the british. thus, in spite of the apparent scorn of tr by nigerian elites as a result of the modernizing influences of the colonizing religions, tr continues to be furtively patronized by a great many adherents of both islam and christianity and has therefore maintained its relevance. invariably, the nigerian notion of national security denotes ‘the aggregate of the security interests of all individuals, communities, ethnic groups and political entities’. thus the term ‘hausa’ is now normally used to refer to the original habe population, the sedentary fulbe-speaking people, the tuareg or kanuri of the old kanem borno empire, and most other tribes of northern nigeria who have adopted the hausa language and culture as well as islam. whereas the nigerian constitution has declared freedom of religion and apparently seeks to separate state affairs from the doctrinal leanings of religion, the same constitution creates and recognizes executive and judicial institutions with religious biases.’46realizing that the division between political and religious authority was cast by modern politics, sardauna, the political leader of northern nigeria, sought to establish himself as the religious leader of the region in order to consolidate his legitimacy. in the end, the military government decided to give states the liberty to establish ‘state sharia courts of appeal’ as opposed to a ‘federal sharia court of appeal’ which was sought by the muslim north. state–religion relations in nigeria are characterized by ill-defined boundaries. preceding analysis provides an informed platform for assessing nigeria’s neutrality and religious pluralism in its official dealings. terwase sampson; religion and the nigerian state: situating the de facto and de jure frontiers of state–religion relations and its implications for national security. consequently, nigerians being a multi-religious people would not have conceded to the state the right to govern them on the basis of a particular religious creed.’67 with this divergent view of secularism by the two dominant religious groups, it was only a matter of time before the contradictions inherent in the seemingly secular nigerian state bequeathed by the british colonialists would manifest themselves. in view of the variety of ethnic nationalities in nigeria,3 reference can be made to the pre-colonial religious practices among three most populous ethnic groups in the country (the hausa-fulani, yoruba, and igbo) which existed in the pre-independence geographical arrangements (northern and southern nigeria) before they were amalgamated in 1914. the christian pilgrims commission establishment act has similar provisions and functions with its muslim counterpart—except for that fact that it addresses the christian faith—and also obtains its funding from the federal government. as mentioned earlier, the american currency bears the slogan ‘in god we trust’; us government officials and supreme court justices take oaths of office while placing their hands on the bible or other holy book; the pledge of allegiance refers to ‘one nation under god’; while some justices of the supreme court attend the ‘red mass’ annually before the first day the court is in session. the english law, therefore, runs concurrently with customary and islamic laws, and there is a strong religious influence on the nigerian legal system generally. national youth policy has adopted a program for youth that are disabled. in the same vein, some nigerian laws are laden with religious substance.’89 in this view, nigeria is not a secular state, to the extent that it is concerned with both ‘temporal’ and ‘religious’ matters. whereas the traditional institutions of governance of some ethnic nationalities were an amalgam of political and religious authority, religion and its institutions were independent of political authority in some communities. the muslim national hajj commission of nigeria is established by law and funded from the federation account. whereas the nigerian constitution has declared freedom of religion and apparently seeks to separate state affairs from the doctrinal leanings of religion, the same constitution creates and recognizes executive and judicial institutions with religious biases. secondary schools in nigeria tend to be quite expensive with average annual fees averaging from two hundred and fifty thousand naira to eight hundred thousand naira(00. on the basis of these characteristics, therefore, the following queries are appropriate: where does sovereignty reside in nigeria—in the state or in a divine body?’ the implication of these provisions is that, whereas all religious groups or communities have the legal right to wholly own educational institutions and provide religious instructions to pupils/students of that community based on their faith, any pupil/student of the community or another who professes a religion other than the one recognized and provided by that institution, shall not be compelled to take the said religious instructions provided by the institution.

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